## Kerala Water Authority Assistant Engineer Syllabus

The detailed syllabus for the Kerala Water Authority Assistant Engineer for all three streams are:

### KWA Assistant Engineer: Civil Engineering

- Sources of water supply, Quantification of water demand through population forecasting fluctuations in

demand, Types of pumps and location of the pumping station, Quality of water-Drinking water standards.

Physical, chemical and biological analysis, Treatment of water, Theory and principles of Sedimentation

tanks, Stoke’s law. Types of settling, Coagulation-Mixing, Flocculation, Clariflocculator, Filtration, Types

of filters, Rapid sand, Slow sand, and Pressure filters, Methods of Disinfection, Taste and Odour removal.

Fluoridation, Defluoridation, Layout of water distribution network, Methods of distribution-Hardy cross

the method, Equivalent pipe method. - Wastewater Characteristics, Systems of sewerage, Design of circular sewer, Wastewater disposal

systems, Dilution techniques, land treatment, Self-purification of streams, Treatment of sewage, Theory

and principles of Screen and Grit chamber, Detritus chamber, Skimming tank, Primary treatmentSedimentation tank, Trickling filter, Activated sludge process, Septic tank, Oxidation pond. Sludge

treatment and disposal methods. - Stresses and strains, Shear force and bending moment, Moment of inertia, Analysis of frames. Theory of simple bending, Torsion, Columns and struts, Direct and bending stresses. Thin cylinders and thick cylinders Strain energy, Deflection of beams, Three hinged and two hinged arches, Analysis of frames.
- Fluid pressure and its measurement. Hydrostatic forces on surfaces, Bernoulli’s and Euler’s theory, Flow-through pipes, Flow-through orifice and mouthpieces, Flow over notches and weirs, Open channel flow, Buoyancy, Metacentre, Lock gate. Spillways, River engineering, Design of lined and unlined canals, Canal headworks, Cross drainage works.
- Chain survey, Theodolite survey. Compass survey, Plane table survey, Levelling, Contours, Simpson’s rule, Trapezoidal rule, Mass curve.
- Bricks, Timber, Cement. Concrete, Tests for quality assurance. Estimation, Specification, Valuation. Various components of a building. Bearing capacity of the soil. Types of foundation, Earth retaining structures.
- Concrete technology, Mix design, Design of RCC structures- working stress and limit state design concepts. Design of retaining walls, bridges and water tanks, prestressed concrete.
- Steel structures. Plastic analysis, Working stress and limit state design concepts, Design of connections, water tanks, bridges and trusses.

### Chemical Engineering

- Properties of fluids, principles of fluid statics and dynamics, pressure and flow measurement, material,

momentum and energy balance in fluid flow through pipes/conduits and other different geometries,

Equation of continuity, equation of motion – Navier-Stokes equation, Euler equation, Bernoulli’s equation

and its application for the design of fluid moving machinery. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian flow. - Concepts of different modes of heat transport, fundamental laws governing the processes and their

analysis and applications of heat transfer processes in solids, liquids and gases. Heat transfer equipment - Mass Diffusion. Fundamental laws, mass transfer coefficients, theories of diffusion, interphase diffusional

transport, drying, adsorption, adsorbents and adsorption processes. Novel Separation processes: Gas

permeation processes, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration processes and microfiltration processes, thermal

diffusion, sweep diffusion, foam separation and ion-exchange processes. - Mass transfer equipment. Concepts of solution thermodynamics.
- Particle size analysis, Solid handling- Particle size distribution, particle shape and size. Concepts involved

in size reduction, associated equipment, solid-solid separation: Concepts of different types of settling,

sedimentation, precipitation and associated solid-liquid and gas-solid separation equipment, packed beds

and fluidized beds. Mixing and agitation-concepts and associated equipment. - Concepts of reactions and their types, limiting and excess reactants, mole balances, conversions and

concepts of thermochemistry. Reaction Kinetics: Kinetic rate laws, ideal reactors and isothermal design, multiple reactions, yield and selectivity. Analysis of reactor performance data: Batch reactor data,

differential and integral methods, initial rate and half-life methods. - Microbial ecology, types of microorganisms, the kinetics of microbial and enzyme reactions. Concept of

bioreactors, and their different variants. Heterogeneous reactions and reactors.

### Kerala Water Authority Syllabus: Mechanical Engineering

- Thermodynamics: Concepts of thermodynamics, Laws of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle, Air standard

cycles, P-V and T-S diagrams. - Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines: Impact of jets, Hydraulic Turbines: Impulse and Reaction

and related accessories, Positive displacement pumps, rotodynamic pumps-, selection of pumps – pumping

devices – hydraulic ram jet pumps, gear pumps, vane pump and lobe pump. Dimensional analysis

Heat Transfer: Modes of heat transfer, equation of heat conduction. Heat conduction through plates,

cylinder and sphere, calculation of thermal resistances, Newton’ law of cooling, Convective heat transfer

coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient - Elements of power cycles: Calorific value, combustion of liquid, solid and gaseous fuels, Boilers,

properties of steam, Rankine cycle, Brayton cycle, methods for improving the efficiency of these cycles.

Refrigeration and air conditioning: Vapour compression refrigeration system. Types of refrigerants,

Psychrometry, Psychrometric properties, Psychrometric processes, air washers, human comfort air

conditioning, industrial air conditioning. - Power transmission devices: Belt, rope, chain and gear drives. Classification of gears, gear trains,

coupling, clutches and brakes. - Governors: Types of governors – Watt Porter, Proell and Hartnell governor.
- Gyroscopes: Principle, -analysis of gyroscopic action on vehicles-two wheelers, four-wheelers, aeroplanes

and ships. - Balancing: Static and Dynamic balancing – Balancing of revolving masses in different planes – Balancing of reciprocating mass
- Engineering Materials: Mechanical properties of engineering materials, Tens le test, Hardness test, Impact test, Ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics abrasive materials, ceramics, silicon and glasses.
- Manufacturing process: Casting, forging, rolling, welding, soldering and brazing. Machining processes,

turning, taper turning, thread cutting, shaping, drilling, grinding, milling. Principle, application and

advantages of CNC machines. Electrochemical and discharge machining. - Vibration: Types of vibrations – Basic elements of a vibrating system – Undamped force vibrations,

different methods of analysis,- Free vibrations with viscous damping,- logarithmic decrement, -forced

vibrations,- vibration isolation and transmissibility- Force due to unbalance – Force due to support motion –

Vibration measuring instruments – vibrometers – accelerometers. - Design: Pressure vessels, Thin cylinders, Thick cylinders.